BRIEF ON COCOA RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF NIGERIA
History and mandate
The Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria (CRIN) was established in Ibadan, Oyo State on 1st December, 1964 as a successor autonomous research organization to the Nigerian substation of the defunct West African Cocoa Research Institute (WACRI) (Nigeria Statute, Act No. 6 of 1950) following the establishment in 1944 of the headquarters of the said WACRI at Tafo, Ghana with responsibility to conduct research to facilitate improved production of disease-free, or disease resistant cocoa. By virtue of the Nigerian Research Institutes Act No. 33 of 1964, the scope of CRIN was expanded beyond that of WACRI which include research on kola and coffee in addition to cocoa. In 1975, by the Agricultural Research Institutes (Establishments, etc), the scope of CRIN research activities was further enlarged to include cashew and tea. Consequently, CRIN today has mandate to conduct research on five crops, namely, Cocoa, Kola, Coffee, Cashew and Tea throughout the country. According to the aforementioned enabling Decree the expressed objectives of CRIN mandate on these five crops are:
(i) Improvement of the genetic potential, agronomic and husbandry practices, including
processing and storage of the crops.
(ii) Identification of the ecology and methods of control of pests and diseases affecting the
(iii) Investigating the effective utilization of the crops and their by-products, and the
feasibility of small-scale production of such end-use products.
(iv) Integration of the cultivation of the mandate crops into cropping systems where each
crop is grown by farmers.
(v) Translation of research results and improved technologies into practice among farmers
and manufacturers in order to improve production and socio-economic life of the
CRIN is organized into eight Departments comprising technical/research and service
(i) Research (R)
(ii) Farming System Research & Extension (FSR&E)
(iii) End-Use Research (EUR)
(iv) Production & Sub-stations (P&S)
(v) Planning Budgeting and Training (PB&T)
(vi) Library Information and Documentation (LID)
(vii) Finance and Account (F&A)
(viii) Administration and Supplies (A&S)
These Departments are responsible to the Executive Director /Chief Executive who in turn is also responsible to the Institute’s Governing Board and the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources. The Institute maintains bi-lateral relationships with international organizations that deal with cocoa and other mandate crops. So also, it has linkages with other National Agricultural Research Institutes (NARIs); state and national agencies through which its
technologies are disseminated.
In order to cover the whole country effectively, the Institute has established and sustains substations in six locations in which the mandate crops of the Institute can be economically cultivated. These are: Owena (Ondo State) which caters for cocoa, robusta coffee and kola, in the south-west zone rain forest belt, Uhonmora (Edo-State) which caters for cocoa in marginal forest areas. Ochaja (Kogi State) for cashew and kola: Ibeku (Abia State) in the south-east zone and also in rain forest belt to cater for cocoa and cashew. Ajassor (Cross River State) for cocoa and Kola in the south-east zone rain forest belt; and Kusuku-Mambilla (Taraba State) for Arabica coffee and tea. There are six experimental stations located all over the country in Okondi (Cross River State) for robusta coffee, Mayo-Selbe (Taraba State) for cocoa and robusta coffee, Ibule (Ondo State) for cocoa, Kabba (Kogi State) for robusta coffee, Ugbenu (Anambra State) for cashew, and Onisere (Ondo State) for cocoa.
Outreach and Extension Services
The aforementioned substations and experimental sites serve to facilitate the Institute’s outreach and extension services to farmers and industrialists operating on its mandate crops all over the country, namely:
(a) Serving as effective information channels whereby research findings get to farmers and industrialists. And the production constraints of farmers and industrialists are fed back to researchers.
(b) Improving the socio-economic status of farmers/farm families through improved and diversified income.
(c) Increasing productivity of farmers through effective utilization of on-farm trial methods thereby enhancing adoption of technology.
(d) Bringing about awareness to farmers on varied methods of utilizing farm by products.
(e) Assisting farmers and industrialists to become self-reliant in making certain production decisions
Manpower and other Existing Resources
The Institute as at July 1, 2010 has a total staff strength of 733, made up of 57 research Scientists 16 Laboratory Technologists and 63 Agricultural Superintendents, 23 professionals in Administration, Finance and Supplies and Engineering Works, 574 other service personnel, semi skilled and unskilled personnel. There are other physical infrastructures and social services available at the Institute headquarters in Ibadan and all the above mentioned substations and experimental sites. These are however insufficient to fully meet the mandate of the Institute. Contributions of CRIN to the National Economy As all the mandate crops of CRIN are commodity crops, research efforts on these crops can and will cause increase in productivity and ultimate gross production of these crops, leading to a direct increase in the foreign exchange earning of Nigeria. Furthermore, all the crops are industrial crops (for large, medium and small scale industries) which can be exploited to meaningfully contribute to the desired industrial growth of Nigeria, create employment for both rural and urban populace and in no small way increase the standard of living of the people involved in the industries.
Achievement to date
In spite of the aforestated insufficient/inadequate resources, and given the low level of funding of research in Nigeria, the Institute in the last 45 years of its existence, has been able to achieve the following (presented on the basis of the Institute’s mandate crops/Research
programs among others:) Cocoa
(i) Early bearing cocoa varieties which combine high yield (2,000 kg/ha. compared with 500 kg/ha. on farmers’ farms), insect pests and disease tolerance and other quality parameters were developed. Twelve hybrids of cocoa from these categories are to be released before the end of 2010.
(ii) Seedlings of these newly developed genetically improved and high yielding varieties have been raised and are being distributed to farmers and for establishment of seed gardens in the 14 cocoa producing states, CRIN Headquarters and its six substations.
(iii) Selection of two hundred and sixty five (265) cocoa trees for blackpod escape was made.
(iv) Assessment of genetic diversity in Nigerian cocoa was undertaken using simple sequence repeat markers.
(v) Articulate physico-chemical methods have been developed for site selection and management.
(vi) Fertilizer requirements for cocoa cultivation have been established for the different soil types of the south-west ecological zone, the sandy and shaly soils of Edo State and the heavy rainfall areas of Ikom in Cross River State.
(vii) Organic- based manure which satisfies fertilizer requirements in cocoa nurseries has been developed by incorporating cocoa pod husk (CPH) and Chromolaena. In addition, Neem-fortified cocoa pod husk at the ratio of 80:20 (CPH: Neem Leaves) applied with 10kg N/ha enhanced cocoa seedling establishment under old cocoa plantation.
(viii) Application of Boron at 100 mg/L significantly improved fermentable pods.
(ix) Composting of organic materials (Siam weed + Cowdung) for cocoa using farmer participatory approach was developed for Cross River State.
(x) Vigorous seedlings were produced from beans obtained from big pods and distal end of smaller pods. In addition, rain water was adjudged to be most suitable for production of cocoa seedlings.
(xi) Weed control in young and old cocoa has been improved by the use of Glyphosates, e.g. Touchdown Forte, Round-up and Clearweed using direct application technique; this has been shown to be more economical than cultural method of manual handslashing.
(xii) In line with European Union’s(E.U) regulation, pesticide usage on cocoa for effective control of black pod disease of cocoa has been achieved by spraying the pods with recommended fungicides such as Ridomil Gold (Metalaxyl-M+Cuprous Oxide, Funguran OH (Copper hydroxide), Copper Nordox, (Copper Oxide) and Champ D.P.(Copper hydroxide),Kocide 101 (Copper Oxide).
(xiii) Dusban 48 E.C. (Chlorpyrifos) and Actara 25 W.G. (Thiamethoxam) have been identified as alternative insecticides to Gammalin 20 E.C. and other cocoa insecticides for solving the cocoa mirid resistance problems and for minimising hazards to cocoa farm workers, the environment and consumers of cocoa products.
(xiv) To protect cocoa beans in storage, Actellic 250E.C, (Pirimiphos methyl) and Phostoxin (Aluminium phosphide) are recommended.
(xv) Nematode control in cocoa using organic amendments (wood ash, poultry droppings, cocoa pod husk (CPH), cow dung and neem) was achieved. This method was as effective as chemical control using Carbofuran.
(xvi) The diversity of Trichoderma Spp. from major cocoa ecologies of Nigeria has been determined while the potential of the organism as an effective bio-control agent of the black pod disease of cocoa was established.
(xvii) A survey of the occurrence of Mycotoxin in cocoa beans was carried out in Ondo , Cross River, Edo and Taraba States.
(xviii) Early removal of mistletoes has been found to improve pod yield in cocoa.
(xix) Increase in land utilization has been achieved by intercropping cocoa with cocoyam, yam, cassava, maize, rice (at Uhonmora) melon, okra and pepper before canopy closure. This has proved to be effective in suppressing weeds and serving as an alternative means of early revenue for the farmers before maturity of the main crop.
(xx) Mixed cropping of cocoa and oil-palm has been recommended for adoption in South South and South West zone whereby cocoa is planted in “hollow squares” provided by nine stands of oil-palm planted at 9 m spacing.
(xxi) Rehabilitation methods have been demonstrated and recommended for old moribund and/or fire – gutted cocoa plantation using the most vigorous regenerated chupon from coppiced cocoa stands.
i Promising hybrids of improved Cola nitida (Kola) have been developed; these hybrids
produce in five years with an annual average yield of about 2,000 nuts/tree/year of
marketable sizes (12-15 g) compared with 250 nuts/tree/year of the unselected
materials used by the farmers presently.
ii Additional high yielding C. nitida and C. acuminata genotypes have been selected from
iii Vegetative propagation techniques ( grafting, budding, marcotting and cutting) for
kola have been developed whereby the vegetatively propagated materials start to
produce fruits in about three years after field planting compared with the seven year
gestation period of seedlings.
iv Scarification technique has been established to facilitate rapid and uniform germination
of kolanuts for seedling production.
v. The on-shelf hand pollination technique has been used to identify and/or confirm
sterility or incompatibility towards rehabilitation of old moribund farms and for solving
problems of sudden occurrence of un-productivity in farmers’ orchards.
vi. Some alternative insecticides Basudin 600 EC and Cymbush 10 EC and Decis 12EC, have
been found to be effective in protecting kola in the field to replace the hazardous
Gammalin 20EC and other hitherto prescribed insecticides.
vii Spindor dust (a.i. Spinosad (0.125%), a natural insecticide, was effective for protection
of Kolanuts in storage and during primary processing against the kola weevil,
Balanogastris kolae. The insecticide had no adverse effect on the consumers and the
organo-leptic qualities (taste, color, texture etc) of the treated kola nuts.
viii Edible salts (Sodium bicarbonate and sodium metabisulphite) and wood ash have been
successfully used to protect fresh and stored kolanuts from fungal diseases.
ix Various plant materials are still undergoing screening as alternatives to synthetic
insecticides for stored nuts.
x. Cultural methods including timeliness in pod harvesting, weeding and pruning of dead
branches have been developed and recommended for reducing economically important
field and storage pests and diseases of kola trees and kolanuts.
xi. Kola pod husks with other organic materials such as poultry droppings are being used
for organic fertilizer.
i. A socio-economically-acceptable method of rehabilitating old coffee plantations with
overgrown trees has been developed through coppicing at 30 cm above ground level to
rejuvenate the old plants.
ii. Management of plant geometry of coffee by de-capping to a height of 1.5 m has been
found to facilitate harvesting.
iii Use of locally available and relatively cheaper Humic acid when applied at 8000 ppm has
been found to be as effective as 4000 ppm of the imported and expensive Indole Butyric
Acid in vegetatively produced rooted stem cuttings which come into bearing in 2 years as
against 3-4 years by seedlings.
iv The use of half-node stem cutting for propagating robusta coffee has been developed.
v. currently 64 varieties of Coffea Arabica are kept in Germplasm on the Mambilla Plateau
for genetic improvement.
vi. Mixed-cropping of compatible Quillou e.g (C-96 & (C-111) and Java e.g. (T1049 &T93)
varieties of robusta coffee (Coffea caneptora) have been recommended for higher yield
rather than mono-culture of each of these coffees.
vii Four high yielding varieties: T.1996 selection, Fica flora (plot7), TH- F1 33-4 (Plot53), T,
2308 Catura Rojo C818 (Plot54) and T, 992 Padang (Plot55) of Coffea Arabica were
identified and recommended to farmers for planting.
viii In order to reduce bulk and cost incurred in transporting potted stem cuttings; openrooted
method of propagating and transporting stem cuttings of robusta coffee has
been developed, yielding a set survival success of 98.0% as against 80.0% recorded for
potted cuttings. This method drastically reduced production and transport costs of
cutting with satisfactory nursery and field performance.
ix Physical/mechanical method of controlling insect pests especially hand-picking and
destruction of immature stages of pests/infested plant tissues have been found to
significantly reduce infestation of coffee by three economically important insect pests
(Epicampoptera Leucoplema and (ephonodes SPP) of coffee.
x Termite control on coffee was achieved by spraying the waste water from cassava
processed for “fufu “production.
xi Organic manure made from Chromolaena odoratum (Siam weed)., cowdung, grasses
and maize stovers have been developed and recommended to be as effective as
inorganic fertilizers specifically on the Mambilla plateau.
xii. A coffee marketing campaign strategy has yielded positive results. More farmers who
had earlier abandoned their farms have now rejuvenated/rehabilitated the
Xiii The wet method of coffee processing has been found to enhance the quality and
marketability of the coffee beans.
Xiv Distribution of coffee seedling, rooted cuttings and coffee berries for planting to major
13 coffee growing states of Nigeria through states Ministry of Agriculture.
i. Seeds and seedlings of 25 superior genotypes, high yielding (10-13kg/tree/year)
medium sized nuts with superior flavour and apple skin/flesh colour selections have
been supplied to farmers nation-wide.
ii Appropriate site/soil selection packages for cashew cultivation and effective fertilizer
regimes to correct mineral deficiencies have been developed.
iii Effective seed propagation methods, establishment, spacing, pruning and intercropping
have also been developed.
iv Clonal and vegetatively propagated cashew as planting materials through marcotting
technique have been established and recommended as an economically viable venture
for adoption by farmers.
v. Suitable fungicide and insecticide mixtures have been developed and successfully used
to control incidence of ravaging inflorescence blight disease.
vi. Cultural method such as farm sanitation involving removal of infested branches and
physical method such as hand picking of immature stages of pests have been found to
reduce cashew stem girdlers.
vii. Brazilian Jumbo-sized nuts of prime value in the world market have been selected for
evaluation and distribution to farmers.
i. Currently twenty four (24) highland clonal tea genotypes introduced from Kenya are
kept in Germplasm on Mambilla plateau. Six of these have been recommended for
commercial cultivation clones 35, 143, 318, 236 68 and 357.
ii Fifteen (15) tea clones were evaluated in six lowland areas of Nigeria, Iyanomo, (Edo),
Akwete (Abia), Ajassor (Cross River), Ikorodu (Lagos) Mayo Selbe(Taraba), and Ibadan
Oyo. It was found that Ikom as lowland location could best sustain commercial tea
plantation in Nigeria. In addition clone 143 followed by 318 were most adoptable to
iii. A new rapid method for determining the field pluck (harvest) quality for tea has been
evolved PLUCK QUALITY VALUE (PQV) SCORE.
iv DNA molecular characterization of twenty (20) clones, which would assist in parental
selection for subsequent hybridization was successfully concluded.
v High yielding lowland tea varies were acquired from China in 2008 and these are being
kept in Germplasm on Mambilla Plateau.
vi It has been found that high tea leaf harvest of good quality is guaranteed in the dry
season by tea/ eucalyptus intercrop for better soil management in tea gardens and to
ensure that farmers income does not diminish in the dry season.
vii In order to diversify the farmers’ income, green tea processing technique have been
demonstrated to the farmers, and this already being practiced by the farmers on
Mambilla Plateau, besides the popular factory – made black tea.
viii Factors to use in the selection of sites for lowland tea production have been developed.
ix Appropriate fertilizer application on test have been determined and recommended
thus: Sulphate of ammonia in split application NPK 5:1:1 i.e. %0kg N, 30kg P, and 30kg
boron 4 pp solubor foliar application.
Crop Processing and Utilization
i Process of producing high quality sweet wine (8-12%v/v) and dry wine (17-18% v/v)
from cocoa juice has been developed.
ii Washing liquid soap and bar soap have been developed and are being produced with
potash (92% purity) extracted by crystallization from cocoa pod husk.
iii Cheap feeds for pigs have been developed and are being produced using dried cocoa
pod husk to replace 25% maize in the feed composition.
iv Recipes for pure chocolate bars and chocolate blends with kola, coffee, cashew or tea
have been developed. These have received the approval of the National Food and
Drugs Administration and Control (NAFDAC) of the Federal Ministry of Health.
v. Kola flavoured wine has been developed and commercialized.
vi Kola pod husk-based diet has been produced. This ensured 10% replacement of maize
in poultry feed formulation.
vii Kola testa has been used in snail feed production.
viii Kola, coffee, cashew and tea wines have been developed as added-value products of
kola, coffee, cashew and tea.
ix Eight edible products namely: cashew apple juice, cashew apple drink, cashew apple
vinegar, cashew apple gin, cashew apple candy, cashew pectin and cashew apple jam
have been developed from the pseudo-apple of cashew which is usually discarded after
harvesting the cashew nuts.
x. Cooking oil has also been extracted from cashew kernel.
xi Cottage-scale cashew apple juice extractor has been fabricated, developed and is in use
for producing bottled cashew juice.
xii High quality black soap has been developed using potash from cocoa pod husk.
xiii Cocoa – Kola beverage produced.
xiv Cocoa enriched gari was formulated and commercialized.
xv “Choco-Ogi” was developed and commercialized.
xvi Choco-bread was made from cocoa powder and wheat flour.
xvii Pure (natural) cocoa powder for health drink produced.
xviii Cocoa custard formulated and commercialized.
xix Cashew milk from cashew kernel was produced.
xx Soy-chocolate beverage, an instant beverage drink was produced.
xxi Fabrication of cocoa fermenter and dryer.
Farming Systems and Extension
i CRIN is establishing Cocoa Seed Garderns in all the 14 cocoa producing States in Nigeria.
These are: Ondo, Cross River, Osun, Edo, Oyo, Ogun, Ekiti, Kwara, Kogi, Akwa-Ibom,
Delta, Abia, Taraba, and Adamawa States. This will assist in making CRIN extra-early
Cocoa variety available to all farmers.
ii Suitable cropping system of CRIN mandate crops in combination with arable crops such
as yam, cassava, cocoyam, maize, okra, cowpea, rice (at Uhonmora) and melon in
different combinations at establishment stage (1-3 years) has resulted in weed
suppression and provision of additional and early revenue for the farmers.
iii Cocoa has been intercropped with other CRIN mandate crops (except tea), in
appropriate poly cultures which has resulted in low incidence of pests and diseases and
maintenance of high soil fertility.
iv Evolution of appropriate field management practices has resulted in the production of
effective and suitable cropping system in cocoa, cashew and coffee.
v. On-farm adaptive research on the intercropping of cashew with cassava, maize and
melon has been carried out in collaboration with some states Agricultural Development
vi On invitation, many visits had been paid to farmers’ farms all over the country to solve
vii CRIN collaborated with Farmers’ Agricultural Development Unit (FADU) for the
establishment of on-farm adaptive research work at Elegunmefa in Ogun State and
Elede Ominigbo in Ibarapa North Local Government Area of Oyo State.
viii Some villages/schools were adopted in collaboration with Agricultural Research Council
of Nigeria (ARCN) in order to demonstrate and show-case CRIN technologies. The
adopted villages are Aba-Ago and Olubi in Oyo State. The adopted secondary schools
are Prospect High School, Abanla, Oyo State and Mamu Community Comprehensive
High School in Ogun State. This is to encourage adoption of CRIN research technologies
and encourage participation of youths in Agriculture.
ix CRIN collaborated with Ogun State Agricultural Development Programme (OGADEP) for
establishment of cocoa on-farm adaptive research at Sora-Baale in Ogun State to
demonstrate good agricultural practices (GAP) in establishment and management of
x. Hosting of educational institutions on excursion to CRIN for dissemination of research
information. Farmers, students from primary, secondary schools and higher institutions
are frequently taken round the Institute by extension personnel and are briefed on CRIN
xi. Cashew seedlings germinated from heavier and bigger nut sizes (Jumbo nuts) that have
better field performance than the lighter and smaller nuts of cashew have been
transferred to farmers.
xii CRIN transferred rehabilitation methods on moribund cocoa and coffee plantations
using various methods such as coppicing, complete farm replanting, planting under old
cocoa trees etc.
xiii Farmers in Ogun State were trained on use of kola pod husk in the following:
(a) Animal feed was compounded with kola pod husks that were hitherto a waste.
(b) Snails (African giant snails) were raised on kola testa and kola pod husk ration.
(c) Organic fertilizer was produced from kola pod husk.
xiv CRIN was involved in the National Cocoa Development Committee’s (NCDC)
sensitization and training programme on cocoa rehabilitation.
xv. Training of cocoa farmers on cocoa rehabilitation, cocoa maintenance practices in
conjunction with Justice Peace Development Commission (JPDC).
xvi For increased cocoa production in Nigeria, CRIN organized training for some Agricultural
Development Programmes (ADPs) Extension Agents and cocoa farmers on good
agricultural practices required in cocoa production in Osun State.
xvii In order to meet European Union (EU) Regulation/Standard in cocoa production, CRIN
embarked on sensitization and awareness creation at Ase-Igbo (Idenre Local
Government Area of Ondo State) on the pesticides recommended for farmers’ use to
ensure good cocoa bean quality.
xviii Distribution of cocoa pods, cocoa seedlings and cashew nuts to States through Cocoa
Development Units (CDU) of the States’ Ministry of Agriculture.
xix Exhibition of CRIN developed technologies at different for such as the Annual National
Cocoa Day, Trade fairs and Agricultural shows were regularly undertaken.
xx Participation in the annual Research Extension Farmers’ input Linkage System (REFILS) of
South West, South East and North zone of the country.
xxi The established Ikereku farm had been visited and 1000 seedlings of high yield coffee
and plantain suckers (for shade provision) which have been planted to rehabilitate the
abandoned coffee farm. Farmers are being encouraged to adopt the new improved
Statistics, Socio-Economics & Techno-Economic Research
(i) It has been established that the readily available sources of loan available to farmers are
credits from produce buyers, cooperative societies, money lenders and other farmers in
that order for grass root agricultural financing.
(ii) The national average yield of cocoa/ha/year ranges from 0.393 to 0.503 tonnes in
Nigeria due to environmental and farm management factors for the period 2001 to
(iii) Through use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) the total current hectares under
cocoa cultivation in Nigeria has been estimated to be 639, 348ha. Contributions of each
of the 14 cocoa producing States are as follows: Ondo; 149687 ha. Cross River
123,747ha. Osun: 106,111ha, Ogun: 80,252 ha. Ekiti: 60,589 ha., Edo: 57,259 ha., Oyo:
41,447 ha., Kogi: 10,200 ha., Abia: 4,230 ha., Kwara: 3,578 ha., Akwa Ibom: 1,892 ha.,
Taraba: 200 ha., Delta: 150 ha and Adamawa: 6 ha.
(iv) Social capital has been identified to be an important factor in improving the cocoa
farming households’ access to credit in Nigeria.
(v) Farming business in Nigeria is in the hands of old people thus it has been recommended
that youths should be encouraged to go into farming through provision of attractive
incentives in form of collateral free credit based on their social capital status.
(vi) Food demand has been found to be a major factor determining the food and nutritional
security among cocoa farming households. In line with this, farmers are being
encouraged to intercrop their cocoa farms with arable crops (especially at the early
stage of cocoa establishment) so as to enhance availability of food for the farming
(vii) Price studies over a 10 year period (1998-2008) showed increases which varied between
19% and 70%. Sharp price increases in the international markets were due to domestic
conflicts in Cote d’ivoire. Domestic price increases in Nigeria reflected the dynamics of
(i) Cocoa plantlets have been successfully regenerated from the floral part (staminode) of
(ii) Somatic embryos of cocoa have been developed from staminode explants of tea and
cocoa using locally sourced growth enhancement substitutes like lagoon water, trona
and earthworm casts.
(iii) Genetic transformation of staminode explants of cocoa was achieved using
All the aforestated achievements provide foundation for increased agricultural and
industrial production if they are taken up by entrepreneurs in agriculture and
manufacturing sector leading to increased employment, arrest of rural-urban drift of
manpower, increased availability of agro-industrial raw materials, elimination of
poverty, increased foreign exchange earnings and enhancement of prosperity among all
OWENA UHONMORA OCHAJA AJASSOR(IKOM)
P.M.B. 659, Akure, P.M.B. 104, P.M.B. 1005 Egume, P.M.B. 1022, Ikom,
Ondo State. Sabongida-Ora, Kogi State. Cross River State.
P.M. B. 8041, Umuahia, P.M.B. 15, Gembu,
Abia State. Sardana L.G.A
Mambilla, Taraba State.
For further information on CRIN research activities and assistance, please contact:
The Executive Director/Chief Executive
Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria,
HEADQUARTERS AT IDI-AYUNRE, OLUYOLE LOCAL GOVT. AREA IBADAN, OYO STATE.